Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that serve as signaling platforms initiating innate immune responses. These structures are assembled upon a large array of stimuli, sensing both microbial products and endogenous signals indicating loss of cellular homeostasis. As such, inflammasomes are regarded as sensors of cellular integrity and tissue health, which, upon disruption of homeostasis, provoke an inflammatory response by the release of potent cytokines. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to sensing cellular integrity, inflammasomes are involved in the homeostatic mutualism between the host and its indigenous microbiota. Here, we summarize the involvement of various inflammasomes in host-microbiota interactions and focus on the role of commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria in inflammasome signaling.