Cytokines maintain intestinal health, but precise intercellular communication networks remain poorly under- stood. Macrophages are immune sentinels of the intestinal tissue and are critical for gut homeostasis. Here, we show that in a murine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model based on macrophage-restricted interleukin-10 (IL-10) receptor deficiency (Cx3cr1Cre:Il10rafl/fl mice), proinflammatory mutant gut macrophages cause severe spontaneous colitis resembling the condition observed in children carrying IL-10R mutations. We establish macrophage-derived IL-23 as the driving factor of this pathology. Specifically, we report that Cx3cr1Cre:Il10rafl/fl:Il23afl/flmice harboring macrophages deficient for both IL-10R and IL-23 are protected from colitis. By analyzing the epi- thelial response to proinflammatory macrophages, we provide evidence that T cells of colitic animals produce IL-22, which induces epithelial chemokine expression and detrimental neutrophil recruitment. Collectively, we define macrophage-specific contributions to the induction and pathogenesis of colitis, as manifested in mice harboring IL-10R deficiencies and human IBDs.