The intestinal microbiome exerts a major immunomodulatory effect, in particular the innate immune system. This has a strong impact on health and disease.
The intestinal microbiome is a signalling hub that integrates environmental inputs, such as diet, with genetic and immune signals to affect the host’s metabolism, immunity and response to infection. The haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells of the innate immune system are located strategically at the host-microbiome interface. These cells have the ability to sense microorganisms or their metabolic products and to translate the signals into host physiological responses and the regulation of microbial ecology. Aberrations in the communication between the innate immune system and the gut microbiota might contribute to complex diseases.
Visit full artice page: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature18847